Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity
American Economic Review,
We build on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and census data to examine the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of foreign born expertise and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. The contribution of immigrant inventors to US innovation was substantial. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive than native born inventors; however, they received significantly lower levels of labor income. The immigrant inventor wage-gap cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.
12.04.2017 • 19/2017
Joint Economic Forecast Spring 2017: Upturn in Germany strengthens in spite of global economic risks
The German economy is already in the fifth year of a moderate upturn. According to the Gemeinschaftsdiagnose (GD, joint economic forecast) that was prepared by Germany’s five leading economic research institutes on behalf of the Federal Government, capacity utilization is gradually increasing, and aggregate production capacities are now likely to have slightly exceeded their normal utilisation levels. However, cyclical dynamics remain low compared to earlier periods of recoveries, as consumption expenditures, which do not exhibit strong fluctuations, have been the main driving force so far. In addition, net migration increases potential output, counteracting a stronger capacity tightening. “Gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to expand by 1.5% (1.8% adjusted for calendar effects) and 1.8% in the next year. Unemployment is expected to fall to 6.1% in 2016, to 5.7% in 2017 and 5.4% in 2018”, says Oliver Holtemöller, Head of the Department Macroeconomics and vice president of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association. Inflation is expected to increase markedly over the forecast horizon. After an increase in consumer prices of only 0.5% in 2016, the inflation rate is expected to rise to 1.8% in 2017 and 1.7% in 2018. The public budget surplus will reduce only modestly. Public finances are slightly stimulating economic activity in the current year and are cyclically neutral in the year ahead.
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Aktuelle Trends: Große Unterschiede zwischen den Bundesländern bei der Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die Integration Geflüchteter in den Arbeitsmarkt ist angesichts ihrer stark gestiegenen Anzahl eine große Herausforderung in allen Regionen Deutschlands. Es gibt allerdings große Unterschiede bezüglich des Erfolgs der Arbeitsmarktintegration zwischen den Bundesländern.
17.11.2016 • 48/2016
Deutlicher Anstieg rechtsextremistisch motivierter Gewalttaten in Ostdeutschland auch wirtschaftlich bedenklich
Wie man die globale Migration als Chance begreifen kann, darauf gehen heute Experten und Expertinnen im Rahmen der Podiumsdiskussion „Potenziale von Zuwanderern nutzen – Verantwortung übernehmen“ an der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) ein. An der Diskussion nimmt auch Professor Dr. Oliver Holtemöller teil. Er ist Leiter der Abteilung Makroökonomik und stellvertretender Präsident des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) sowie Universitätsprofessor für Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Makroökonomik an der MLU.
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11.10.2016 • 44/2016
New look and feel for IWH website
The relaunched website of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association goes live today. After the successful launch of a new corporate design at the beginning of the year, IWH now presents itself also digitally in a new and adjusted way. The redesigned website focuses on IWH’s core issues and provides information tailored to each target group. Due to the responsive design, the new website can be perfectly read and navigated on smartphones and tablets as well.
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On the Distribution of Refugees in the EU
The current situation regarding the migration of refugees can only be handled efficiently through closer international cooperation in the field of asylum policy. From an economic point of view, it would be reasonable to distribute incoming refugees among all EU countries according to a distribution key that reflects differences in the costs of integration in the individual countries. An efficient distribution would even out the marginal costs of integrating refugees. In order to reach a political agreement, the key for distributing refugees should be complemented by compensation payments that distribute the costs of integration among countries. The key for distributing refugees presented by the EU Commission takes account of appropriate factors in principle, but it is unclear in terms of detail. The compensation payments for countries that should take relatively high numbers of refugees for cost efficiency reasons should be financed by reallocating resources within the EU budget.
09.06.2016 • 22/2016
The German Economy Benefits from Strong Domestic Demand
In 2016, the moderate upswing of the German economy continues. Incomes grow due to the steady expansion in employment, and the fall in energy prices has propped up the purchasing power of private households. As a consequence, private consumption expands healthily; investment in housing is additionally stimulated by very low interest rates. Exports, however, expand only moderately, as the world economy is rather weak. All in all, the IWH forecasts the German GDP to expand by 1.8% in this year and by 1.6% in 2017.
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