Does temporary employment influence the workrelated training of low-skilled employees?
IWH Discussion Papers,
Fixed-term contracts are considerd as one of the most popular instruments of labour market flexibility. Although they provide new labour market options for employer and employees, it is argued that they may lead to decreasing investments in human capital. From the theoretical point of view it is not clear wheter a fixed-term contract is a drawback for the participation in work-related training. The paper deals with the influence of fixed-term contracts on work-related training especially for low-skilled workers. Based on the Micro Census data of 2004, we estimate a bivariate probit model for the probability of fixed-term employment and participating in work-related training. This model enables us to control for selection effects that may arise from unobservable factors. From the estimation results we can conclude that holding a fixed-term contract does not mean a systematical disadvantage for the training probability of low-skilled employees.
Too old to work? The impact of age on productivity
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Due to the public debate on the raising legal re-tirement age in Germany labor market research has recently focused on an explanation of the low labor market participation rate of elders. In the economic discussion the low participation is pri-marily explained by a supposed imbalance of la-bor costs and returns for old workers. Whereas wages rise with increasing age, the individual productivity seems to fall beyond a certain age. Gerontological research supports this view, since it documents an age-driven decline of physical and certain mental abilities. The study empirically evaluates the thesis of a diminishing individual productivity at higher ages. The analysis is done on the basis of a new dataset for German firms of the manufacturing sector. Using these data the effect of the employee’s age on a firm’s productiv-ity is estimated and conclusions on the job per-formance of workers at different ages are drawn. The performed cross-section-regressions of the years 2003 and 2000 indicate an inverted u-shaped age-productivity-profile. The 25-44 year olds turn out to be the most productive, the share of the over 44 year old workers seems to dampen productivity. However the 15-24 age group makes the lowest productivity contribution. Moreover a positive effect of firm-related experience can be found. Due to elders’ higher stock of firm specific human capital this might at least partly compen-sate the unfavorable effects of aging.
From a political perspective these findings sup-port the view, that an increasing legal retirement age will not automatically lead to a remarkable extension of the labor demand for older people. In addition to legal aspects the wage schemes and the actual productivity profiles in higher age have to be linked more closely together.
Mikroökonometrische Evaluation der ökonomischen Wirkungen betrieblicher Mitbestimmung - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Matching-Ansatzes
Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik,
The evaluation of economic effects of workers participation is not simple from the methodical point of view because of specific characteristics of establishments with works councils. Especially recent studies show contradictory results. In this study problems are pointed out, discussed, and options for solution are presented on the example of workers participation in East German establishments of industry and construction by the IAB-Establishment Panel.
An optimal matching-algorithm which supplies good matching-results for small samples to assign 'statistical establishment-twins' is applied. But by reason of very short primarily spells it can only calculate short time effects. Therefore, the matching method is additionally used to construct longer observation periods. By this new application establishments with recently founded works councils are matched with so called 'proxy establishments' with existing works councils. As a result short observation periods are prolonged and information about long-term effects can be given.
The effects on productivity, profitability and qualification level of employees show neither in short-term nor in long-term a significant impact on workers' participation.
Options and Limits of the Matching Approach – An Application to Workers Participation
IWH Discussion Papers,
The evaluation of economic effects of workers participation is not simple from the methodical point of view because of specific characteristics of establishments with works councils. Especially recent studies show contradictory results. In this study problems are pointed out, discussed, and options for solution are presented on the example of workers participation in East German establishments of industry and construction by the IABEstablishment Panel. An optimal matching-algorithm which supplies good matching-results for small samples to assign ‘statistical establishment-twins’ is applied. But by reason of very short primarily spells it can only calculate short time effects. Therefore, the matching method is additionally used to construct longer observation periods. By this new application establishments with recently founded works councils are matched with so called ‘proxy establishments’ with existing works councils. As a result short observation periods are prolonged and information about long-term effects can be given. The effects on productivity, profitability and qualification level of employees show neither in short-term nor in long-term a significant impact on workers’ participation.
Who Invests in Training if Contracts are Temporary? - Empirical Evidence for Germany Using Selection Correction
IWH Discussion Papers,
This study deals with the effect of fixed-term contracts on work-related training. Though previous studies found a negative effect of fixed-term contracts on the participation in training, from the theoretical point of view it is not clear whether workers with fixed-term contracts receive less or more training, compared to workers with permanent contracts. In addition to the existing strand of literature, we especially distinguish between employer- and employee-financed training in order to allow for diverging investment patterns of worker and firm. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we estimate a bivariate probit model to control for selection effects that may arise from unobservable factors, affecting both participation in training and holding fixed-term contracts. Finding negative effects for employer-sponsored, as well as for employee-sponsored training, leads us to conclude that workers with fixed-term contracts do not compensate for lower firm investments.
Is co-determination economically reasonable? East German manufacturing and construction as examples
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the public discussion there are controversial argumentations how works worker’s participation in form of work council in questions of office politics and economic interests. Theoretical publications of this topic show mainly positive effects for staff and management. Therefore we analyse the effects of work council for chances in employment. In establishments with a positive result situation at the status quo and a work council we found a positive trend on employment and the future result. Compared to primarily prosperous establishments without staff association downgrade their result situation. In case of negative result situation establishments with a work council have no greater problems to reduce the employment than establishments without a work council.
Municipal labor market policy - Marshalling yard or escape from public assistance dependency?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Due to an increasing fiscal burden by welfare payments, municipalities tend
more and more to initiate employment and training programs under their own
responsibility besides the Federal Labor Agency. However, critics object
that this might predominantly be viewed as an attempt to shift fiscal
burdens to the Federal Labor Agency rather than a policy option towards
labor market integration of low-wage workers. In order to investigate this
issue, the IWH carried out a country-wide survey within twelve
municipalities and rural districts. The sample comprises 200 employable
welfare recipients, among them participants of labor market programs as well
as a reference group of non-participants. The results of the IWH welfare
survey are at best suggesting a moderate success of program participation
with regard to labor market integration. Nevertheless, the programs appear
to be profitable for municipalities, since they succeed in bringing
participants out of welfare dependency. In many cases, however, welfare is
replaced by unemployment support, which means that only the fiscal
responsibility changes. A shortcoming of the results has to be seen in the
fact that municipalities tend to assign especially those people for program
participation, who are already better fitting into requirements of the labor
market. This seriously impairs the comparability of participants and
non-participants. In view of the remarkable amount of expenditures it seems
therefore advisable to put more attention on the effectiveness of the
programs than has been done in the past. This could be achieved by a
stronger orientation towards an experimental design of assignment for