Evaluierung von Subventionsprogrammen
Diese Forschungsgruppe untersucht die Effekte von Produktions- und Wissensnetzwerken auf die Produktivität von Unternehmen und Regionen. Darüber hinaus werden Wirkungen staatlicher Förderprogramme für Forschung und Entwicklung sowie regionalpolitischer Programme auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Unternehmen und Regionen evaluiert.
ForschungsclusterInstitutionen und soziale Normen
09.2019 ‐ 09.2022
Etablierung einer evidenzbasierten Evaluationskultur für industriepolitische Fördermaßnahmen in Deutschland (EVA-KULT)
Europäischer Fonds für regionale Entwicklung (EFRE)
Das Vorhaben dient dem Ausbau des Zentrums für evidenzbasierte Politikberatung am Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH-CEP).
01.2018 ‐ 12.2020
Vernetzt wachsen - Innovatives Sachsen-Anhalt durch digitale Geschäftsmodelle (Kompetenzzentrum 4.0)
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)
01.2017 ‐ 12.2018
Politische Partizipation in Ostdeutschland
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)
12.2015 ‐ 11.2018
Sozioökonomische Effekte der Erforschung innovativer Ansätze für die POC-Diagnostik
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
Teilvorhaben im Verbundprojekt “POC-Sensorplattform für chronisch-entzündliche Atemwegserkrankungen (EXASENS)”. Neun Leibniz-Institute arbeiten gemeinsam im Pilotprojekt EXASENS an der Erforschung einer Point-of-Care-Technologie zur Vorhersage und Diagnose von chronisch-entzündlichen Atemwegserkrankungen. Der Verbund wird vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) mit 6,25 Millionen Euro gefördert und liefert einen Beitrag zum Ausbau und zur Stärkung des Themenfeldes Gesundheitstechnologien.
Vgl. Pressemitteilung des Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien (IPHT), Jena.
02.2017 ‐ 02.2018
Bedeutung außeruniversitärer Forschungseinrichtungen für die Entwicklung von Betrieben und Regionen
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
01.2015 ‐ 12.2016
Evaluierung der GRW-Förderung in Sachsen-Anhalt
Complex-task Biased Technological Change and the Labor Market
in: Review of Economic Dynamics, April 2017
In this paper we study the relationship between task complexity and the occupational wage- and employment structure. Complex tasks are defined as those requiring higher-order skills, such as the ability to abstract, solve problems, make decisions, or communicate effectively. We measure the task complexity of an occupation by performing Principal Component Analysis on a broad set of occupational descriptors in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) data. We establish four main empirical facts for the U.S. over the 1980–2005 time period that are robust to the inclusion of a detailed set of controls, subsamples, and levels of aggregation: (1) There is a positive relationship across occupations between task complexity and wages and wage growth; (2) Conditional on task complexity, routine-intensity of an occupation is not a significant predictor of wage growth and wage levels; (3) Labor has reallocated from less complex to more complex occupations over time; (4) Within groups of occupations with similar task complexity labor has reallocated to non-routine occupations over time. We then formulate a model of Complex-Task Biased Technological Change with heterogeneous skills and show analytically that it can rationalize these facts. We conclude that workers in non-routine occupations with low ability of solving complex tasks are not shielded from the labor market effects of automatization.
Mapping Potentials for Input-Output Based Innovation Flows in Industrial Clusters – An Application to Germany
in: Economic Systems Research, Nr. 4, 2016
Our paper pursues two aims: first, it presents an approach based on input–output innovation flow matrices to study intersectoral innovation flows within industrial clusters. Second, we apply this approach to the identification of structural weaknesses in East Germany relative to the western part of the country. The case of East Germany forms an interesting subject because while its convergence process after unification began promisingly in the first half of the 1990s, convergence has since slowed down. The existing gap can now be traced mainly to structural weaknesses in the East German economy, such as the absence of strong industrial cluster structures. With this in mind, we investigate whether East Germany does in fact reveal the abovementioned structural weaknesses. Does East Germany possess fewer industrial clusters? Are they less connected? Does East Germany lack specific clusters that are also important for the non-clustered part of the economy?
The Importance of Localized Related Variety for International Diversification of Corporate Technology
in: Regional Studies, Nr. 10, 2016
Die Bedeutung der lokalisierten verbundenen Vielfalt für die internationale Diversifizierung von Unternehmenstechnik. Die Internationalisierung der Forschung und Entwicklung hat sich in den letzten Jahren erheblich verstärkt. In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir die Determinanten der räumlichen Verteilung von ausländischen Technikaktivitäten in 96 deutschen Regionen. Zur Identifizierung ausländischer Technikaktivitäten wird das Konzept des grenzübergreifenden Eigentums auf Patentanträge angewandt. Die wichtigste Prämisse lautet, dass Regionen mit einer höheren verbundenen Vielfalt von Technikaktivitäten zwischen den einzelnen Sektoren mehr ausländische Technikaktivitäten anziehen. Aus den Schätzungen geht hervor, dass dies auf Regionen zutrifft, die sich durch ein hohes Maß an genereller technischer Stärke auszeichnen. Dies lässt darauf schließen, dass verbundene Vielfalt die technische Diversifizierung von ausländischen Unternehmen in Regionen an der Spitze der geografischen Hierarchie begünstigt.
Burdett–Mortensen Model of on-the-Job Search with Two Sectors
in: Review of Economic Dynamics, Special Issue in Honor of Dale Mortensen 2016
The focus of this paper is on the steady state of a two-sector economy with undirected search where employed and unemployed workers can search for jobs, both within a sector and between the sectors. As in the one-sector model, on-the-job search generates wage dispersion among homogeneous workers. The analysis of the two-sector model uncovers a property called constant tension that is responsible for analytical tractability. We characterize the steady state in all cases with constant tension. When time discounting vanishes, constant tension yields the endogenous separation rate in each sector as a linear function of the present value for a worker. The one-sector economy automatically satisfies constant tension, in which case the linear separation rate implies that equilibrium offers of the worker value are uniformly distributed. Constant tension also has strong predictions for worker transitions and value/wage dispersion, both within a sector and between the two sectors. When constant tension does not hold, we compute the steady state numerically and illustrate its properties.
Unemployment in the Great Recession: A Comparison of Germany, Canada, and the United States
in: Journal of Labor Economics, S1 Part 2 2016
This paper looks at the surprisingly different labor market performance of the United States, Canada, Germany, and several other OECD countries during and after the Great Recession of 2008–9. A first important finding is that the large employment swings in the construction sector linked to the boom and bust in US housing markets is an important factor behind the different labor market performances of the three countries. We also find that cross-country differences among OECD countries are consistent with a conventional Okun relationship linking gross domestic product growth to employment performance.
Isolation and Innovation – Two Contradictory Concepts? Explorative Findings from the German Laser Industry
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 1, 2015
We apply a network perspective and study the emergence of core-periphery (CP) structures in innovation networks to shed some light on the relationship between isolation and innovation. It has been frequently argued that a firm’s location in a densely interconnected network area improves its ability to access information and absorb technological knowledge. This, in turn, enables a firm to generate new products and services at a higher rate compared to less integrated competitors. However, the importance of peripheral positions for innovation processes is still a widely neglected issue in literature. Isolation may provide unique conditions that induce innovations which otherwise may never have been invented. Such innovations have the potential to lay the ground for a firm’s pathway towards the network core, where the industry’s established technological knowledge is assumed to be located. The aim of our paper is twofold. Firstly, we propose a new CP indicator and apply it to analyze the emergence of CP patterns in the German laser industry. We employ publicly funded Research and Development (R&D) cooperation project data over a period of more than two decades. Secondly, we explore the paths on which firms move from isolated positions towards the core (and vice versa). Our exploratory results open up a number of new research questions at the intersection between geography, economics and network research.
Does Proximity Matter in the Choice of Partners in Collaborative R&D Projects? – An Empirical Analysis of Granted Projects in Germany
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 12, 2014
This paper contributes to the discussion on the importance of physical distance in the emergence of cross-region collaborative Research and Development (R&D) interactions. The proximity theory, and its extensions, is used as a theoretical framework. A spatial interaction model for count data was implemented for the empirical analysis of German data from the period from 2005 to 2010. The results show that all tested proximity measurements (geographical, cognitive, social and institutional proximity) have a significant positive influence on collaboration intensity. The proximity paradox, however, cannot be confirmed for geographical, social and institutional proximity, but for cognitive proximity.
Is Subsidizing Companies in Difficulties an Optimal Policy? An Empirical Study on the Effectiveness of State Aid in the European Union
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 9, 2014
Even though state aid in order to rescue or restructure ailing companies is regularly granted by European governments, it is often controversially discussed. The aims for rescuing companies are manifold and vary from social, industrial and even political considerations. Well-known examples are Austrian Airlines (Austria) or MG Rover (Great Britain). Yet, this study aims to answer the question whether state aid is used effectively and whether the initial aim why aid has been paid has been reached, i.e. the survival of the company. By using data on rescued companies in the EU and applying a survival analysis, this paper investigates the survival rates of these companies up to 15 years after the aid has been paid. In addition, the results are compared to the survival rates of non-rescued companies which have also been in difficulties. The results suggest that despite the financial support, business failure is often only post-poned; best survival rates have firms with long-term restructuring, enterprises in Eastern Europe, smaller firms and mature companies. However, non-funded companies have an even higher ratio to go bankrupt.
Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Functions: A spatial panel approach
in: Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, 2013
The paper presents estimates for the impact of related variety, unrelated variety and the functions a region performs in the production process on regional employment growth in Germany. We argue that regions benefit from the existence of related activities that facilitate economic development. Thereby the sole reliance of the related and unrelated variety concept on standard industrial classifications (SIC) remains debatable. We offer estimations for establishing that conceptual progress can be made when the focus of analysis goes beyond solely considering industries. We develop an industry-function based approach of related and unrelated variety and test our hypothesis by the help of spatial panel approach. Our findings suggest that related variety as same as unrelated variety facilitate regional employment growth in Germany. However, the drivers behind these effects do differ. While the positive effect of related variety is driven by high degrees of relatedness in the regional “R&D” and “White-Collar”-functions, the effects of unrelated variety are spurred by “Blue Collar”-functions in this period.
Does Partner Type Matter in R&D Collaboration for Environmental Innovation?
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 5, 2013
In the literature on environmental innovations R&D collaborations have been identified as a critical determinant of a firm’s environmental innovation performance. However, the literature suggests that R&D collaboration is not always beneficial. Therefore, a more elaborated analysis of the effects of R&D collaborations on a firm’s environmental innovation performance is necessary. This paper investigates the impact of R&D col-laborations with different partner types such as customers, competitors, suppliers, uni-versities, governmental research institutes, consultants and other firms within the same firm group on a firm’s environmental innovation performance. In addition, this paper addresses the question of whether the diversity of R&D collaboration partners is im-portant for the environmental innovation performance. Firm-level data from 2,337 Ger-man service and manufacturing firms are used in the regression analysis. The results suggest that R&D collaboration with suppliers, customers, universities, governmental research institutes, consultants and other firms within the same firm group has a signifi-cantly positive impact on a firm’s environmental innovation performance, whereas col-laboration with competitors has no significant impact. The diversity of R&D collaboration partners has a significantly positive impact on a firm’s environmental innovation performance.